After you finish the first draft of a manuscript, you need to edit your book. There are multiple phases in the editing process. You start by looking at your book as a whole, then move on to reading the manuscript line by line, and finish by correcting the errors and typos. Each step requires different experts trained in their area. I’d recommend that you hire independent professionals for each phase so you can get several fresh sets of eyes on your book. Start with developmental editing and be prepared for a shift in viewpoint.
What is developmental editing?
Developmental editing will vary depending on the type of book that you’re writing. If you’re penning a novel or a memoir, this kind of editing would include pointing out poor character development, unrealistic or confusing dialogue, continuity issues, plot holes, and other big-picture items.
If you’re writing a business book, the focus will be more on consistency of message and facts. Your editor will make sure that the message on page 10 matches that on page 199.
Once you get back the initial developmental edit, you’ll probably need to do some rewriting. This is why you always want to do the developmental editing prior to line editing and proofreading. There’s no sense in tidying up the typos before you do the rewrites.
Have the right attitude
You must be patient and open during this process. You’ll be looking at the manuscript as a whole and focusing on the big ideas to make sure the main pieces of the story work well. This isn’t a time to zero in on details.
A lot of new authors dread developmental editing because they don’t want to face making big cuts or major changes. This is part of the reason why it is important to hire an outside editor. A first-time writer might be a little too close to the project to be objective. It’s tough to scrap a character because he doesn’t have a real purpose or delete a scene that fails to propel the story forward.
When you undergo a developmental edit, be prepared to make some large changes to your manuscript. You might need to shift your viewpoint a bit and let go of some pages, replacing them with new ones. You can’t be a successful author while clutching every word you write to your bosom.
A good developmental editor is worth her weight in gold. She will help you get your book ready to publish, and her notes will strengthen your manuscript in ways you wouldn’t have been able to imagine. Sure, she might not be your best friend at first, but trust me, you’ll thank her when you’re done.
For more articles about writing a book, please check out these articles:
Every writer battles common word errors. You know the words I mean.
These trouble words can lead to nightmare scenarios that are enough to keep some people from ever writing. Imagine your embarrassment when you find out the query letter you sent to an agent was riddled with common word errors. Or your chagrin when you learn about all your mistakes from various poor reviews after you finally publish your first book on Amazon.
As a writer, you know the power of words. The words you choose leave a lasting impression on your reader. You want the impression to be good, but the incorrect use of words can spoil the effect you work so hard to create.
Unfortunately, common word errors happen more often than would be expected, especially in these days of self-publishing, when some authors cut costs by skipping the editing phase of a book project. Learning how to edit your own manuscript is key to minimizing common word errors.
I’ll be discussing various kinds errors in this series, but in this article I wanted to zero in on homonyms.
Homonyms are two or more words that sound the same (and are sometimes spelled the same), but they have different meanings. When you fully understand each word, and the differences between the homonyms becomes clear, then it’s easier to use them correctly. Here are a half-dozen of my favorite trouble words.
There or Their or They’re?
These three words mean completely different things:
There indicates a location: Put the pot of petunias there.
Their shows possession by people or things previously mentioned: Put their pot of petunias there.
They’re is a contraction of “they are”:They’re putting their pot of petunias there.
Tip: If your trouble word involves a contraction, try expanding it out into two words. For example: “they’re” becomes “they are.” It can help you determine the correct choice.
It’s or Its?
This one is probably top on the list of common word errors. The confusion lies in the apostrophe. That mark is used to indicate either missing letters (a contraction) or a possession. In this case, the apostrophe signals a contraction.
It’s means “it is,” as in: It’s a beautiful rose.
Its indicates that something belongs to “it”: It’s a beautiful rose that lost its petals.
Again, if you expand “its” into two words you can quickly see if the contraction or the possessive is the right choice. For example:
The child stood on its (or it’s) head.
Expanding out the contraction, you’d get:
The child stood on it is head.
Nope! That makes no sense. Must be:
The child stood on its head.
Your or You’re?
The misuse of these homonyms leads to funny statements. Your indicates that something belongs to “you.” And you’re is a contraction of “you are.”
For instance, there is a big difference between:
The first one means you’re about to eat, and the other means that you won’t be around long enough to worry about grammar anymore.
Than or Then?
Then is used in relation to time, while than is used to show a comparison.
So, you’d say:
Barry went to lunch at noon. I’d like to go then.
I’d rather go to lunch with Barry than later at 2pm.
Now, it can get really confusing if you’re comparing two time periods, as in:
I’d rather go then than then.
But that’s a different story…
Farther or Further?
Both words indicate distance, but it’s the quality of the distance that makes it tricky.
Farther indicates physical distance, whereas further implies a more figurative concept of distance.
So, you’d say:
I’m farther down the road than she is.
I’m further along in the book than he is.
Tip: Farther has the word “far” inside it. This can help you remember that it has to do with physical distance.
I hope this helps make it far more clear so it won’t give you further difficulty.
Complement or Compliment?
Sometimes, it’s just one little letter that makes all the difference.
To compliment is to praise something or someone and to complement is to complete or enhance.
So, you’d say:
He complimentedher on her new dress.
He complementedher so well they got married.
Remember that scene from Jerry McGuire?
“You complete me.”
“Shut up, you had me at hello.”
Yes, they complemented each other nicely. No compliments necessary.
As you can see, understanding the meaning of the words helps in choosing the right ones so that you can avoid common word errors in your writing. If you find these confusing, I recommend keeping a little journal of your personal trouble words so that you can refer to them whenever needed.
One of the more senior commandments in the writing profession is show, don’t tell. This can be a baffling concept to new writers. Please don’t allow a lack of understanding of this golden rule to stop you from completing your book.
As with most new skills, show, don’t tell simply takes a little practice to master. With practice you’ll soon find yourself beginning to apply the rules almost instinctively. While honing this skill, I’d recommend that you read some of your favorite books over again and observe how the authors bring their stories to life by showing their readers various details. You’ll find there are many ways to accomplish this goal.
The meaning of show, don’t tell
Show, don’t tell simply means that you allow your readers to experience incidents through storytelling rather than overtly tell them what happened. Showing is often done through character development, in which you thoroughly share sensory details, action, and dialogue.
The reason showing is so effective is that it puts your readers directly into the shoes of the main character and lets them to see things through his or her lens. It’s a much more immersive experience for the readers, allowing them to lose themselves in your book.
In order to illustrate the difference between telling and showing, here are two passages:
Terry had a fear of spiders.
As the spider crept along the tartan quilt, Terry’s body convulsed with an involuntary shudder. His heartbeat quickened as its eight legs inched toward his arm. Would that he could move it away, but none of his muscles would obey his silent plea for escape.
Which version did you prefer? Did one make you feel the emotions along with Terry?
Most people would agree that the second example plops the reader in the middle of the scene and adds layers to his terror. And it’s possible that the reader might experience a shudder of his own.
Use dialogue to show feelings
When attempting to show, don’t tell, dialogue can be a powerful tool for a writer. You can show emotions and reveal the deep relationships between characters in an engaging way. Body language also gives the readers insight into what’s going on.
Keep in mind that people have various ways of communicating. Based on their past relationships, they will speak to each other in different ways. Consider how you speak to and interact with your grandmother. Now think about how you speak with and interact with your sibling or your best friend. Each relationship is very different, right? We all have different behavior codes for the variety of people in our lives who are important to us. Well, the same would apply to the characters in your book.
It’s also worth mentioning that people aren’t cut-out duplicates of one another. We all have different traits that create our personalities. Examine all the people you know. Do they each speak in the same way? My guess is that they have slightly different accents, use different words to communicate ideas (probably with a variety of slang terms), and sometimes slip into half-sentences. Use these personal experiences when you write. It’s through your characters’ idiosyncratic ways of speaking that you can reveal their emotions, intentions and purposes.
Sometimes I find it helpful to see the incidents of my story as scenes in a film. Screenwriters have to show what the characters are experiencing through their actions and dialogue. In a film you couldn’t say, “Joe was angry” unless you included a narrator in the script, which would be awkward. No, you’d need to show that he was angry.
Same goes when writing a book.
So, you could write:
Sally decided to leave her husband of twenty years. When she confronted him about it, he became very angry.
Or you could write:
Sally stood at the doorway and studied her husband. “Joe?” she said as she fidgeted with the hem of her shirt.
Joe crumpled the newspaper onto his lap with an exaggerated flourish. “Yes? What is it?”
“I…” she faltered, then took a deep breath. “My bags are packed.”
Joe glared at her. He grabbed his cane and slowly eased himself out of the chair to a standing position. “You’re really doing this?”
She gave a quick nod. “Yes.”
Sally watched as Joe’s face turned a familiar shade of purple. If he’d been a cartoon, steam would have been coming out of his ears right about then. She took an involuntary step backward.
“Twenty years of my life wasted,” he said through gritted teeth. “Get out. And don’t bother to come back.”
Avoid overusing adverbs
Why is it that we hear seasoned writers warn against using adverbs? After all, they are an important part of speech, modifying not only verbs, but adjectives and other adverbs. Pretty universal, right?
Well, Stephen King wrote in his book On Writing:
“I believe the road to hell is paved with adverbs, and I will shout it from the rooftops. To put it another way, they’re like dandelions. If you have one on your lawn, it looks pretty and unique. If you fail to root it out, however, you find five the next day…fifty the day after that…and then, my brothers and sisters, your lawn is totally, completely, and profligately covered with dandelions. By then you see them for the weeds they really are, but by then it’s—GASP!!—too late.”
Dramatic? Yes. But that’s Stephen King’s signature style.
So, is it wrong to use an adverb? Nah. Just don’t overuse them because they can become a crutch. After all, tossing in a ready-made adverb can be easier than investing the time to show the reader how a character feels. Maybe that’s why Mark Twain warned us that “Adverbs are the tool of the lazy writer.”
“I wouldn’t if I were you,” Becky said condescendingly.
Becky folded her arms across her chest, her lips curled into a smug smile. “I wouldn’t if I were you.”
There is no doubt about it, writing is a balancing act: You want to find your unique voice while obeying all the agreed-upon rules of the craft. If you’re new to writing, give yourself some time to develop your own style. Don’t worry too much about all the rules like show, don’t tell until you begin editing your own book. And remember, while it’s good to know the rules of writing, they aren’t intended to become a straitjacket. Keep writing and enjoy the process!